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通過儀礼

rite of passage

池田光穂

ファン=ヘネップによる通過儀礼(rite of passage)には、その過程において2つの相と3つの段階がある。2つの相とは、日常と非日常。3つの段階とは、(i)分離、(ii)移行・境界、そ して(iii)統合である。

以下は、英語版のウィキペディアからの引用である

A rite of passage is a ceremony or ritual of the passage which occurs when an individual leaves one group to enter another. It involves a significant change of status in society. In cultural anthropology the term is the Anglicisation of rite de passage, a French term innovated by the ethnographer Arnold van Gennep in his work Les rites de passage, "The Rites of Passage". The term is now fully adopted into anthropology as well as into the literature and popular cultures of many modern languages.” - rite of passage. 

通過儀礼とは、ある個人がある集団から別の集団に入る際に行われる「(象徴的に観察できる)通過現象を伴う儀礼」のことである。これは、社会における地位の著しい変化を伴うものである。文化人類学では、民族学者のアーノルド・ファン=ヘネップが『通過儀礼』(Les rites de passage)という著書の中で提唱したフランス語である「通過儀礼」を英語化した言葉である。この言葉は現在、人類学だけでなく、多くの現代言語の文学や大衆文化にもほとんどの多くの場面で採用されている用語である」。

写真:9–10-year-old boys of the Yao tribe in Malawi participating in circumcision and initiation rites. Steve Evans from Citizen of the World - Malawi.


In English, Van Gennep's first sentence of his first chapter begins:

"Each larger society contains within it several distinctly separate groupings. ... In addition, all these groups break down into still smaller societies in subgroups."

The population of a society belongs to multiple groups, some more important to the individual than others. Van Gennep uses the metaphor, "as a kind of house divided into rooms and corridors." A passage occurs when an individual leaves one group to enter another; in the metaphor, he changes rooms.

Van Gennep further distinguishes between "the secular" and "the sacred sphere." Theorizing that civilizations are arranged on a scale, implying that the lower levels represent "the simplest level of development," he hypothesizes that "social groups in such a society likewise have magico-religious foundations." Many groups in modern industrial society practice customs that can be traced to an earlier sacred phase. Passage between these groups requires a ceremony, or ritual hence rite of passage.

The rest of Van Gennep's book presents a description of rites of passage and an organization into types, although in the end he despairs of ever capturing them all:[4] "It is but a rough sketch of an immense picture ...." He is able to find some universals, mainly two: "the sexual separation between men and women, and the magico-religious separation between the profane and the sacred." (Earlier the translators used secular for profane.) He refuses credit for being the first to recognize type of rites. In the work he concentrates on groups and rites individuals might normally encounter progressively: pregnancy, childbirth, initiation, betrothal, marriage, funerals and the like. He mentions some others, such as the territorial passage, a crossing of borders into a culturally different region, such as one where a different religion prevails.

Van Gennepの第1章の最初の文章(英訳)はこう始まる。

それぞれの大きな社会は、その中にいくつかの明確に分離したグループを含んでいる。... さらに、これらのグループはすべて、サブグループのさらに小さな社会に分解される。"

社会の人口は複数のグループに属しており、その中には個人にとって他よりも重要なものもある。Van Gennepは、"部屋と廊下に分かれた一種の家のようなもの "という比喩を使っています。通過とは、個人があるグループから別のグループに入ることであり、この比喩では部屋を変えることを意味する。

さらにVan Gennepは、「世俗的なもの」と「神聖なもの」を区別している。文明は規模に応じて配置されており、下位のレベルは「最も単純な発展レベル」であるこ とを示唆しており、彼は「そのような社会の社会集団は、同様に魔術的・宗教的な基盤を持っている」という仮説を立てている。現代の産業社会では、初期の神 聖な段階にまで遡ることができる習慣を実践している集団が多い。このような集団の間を行き来するには、儀式、つまり通過儀礼が必要である。

Van Gennepの本の残りの部分では、通過儀礼の説明とタイプ別の構成が紹介されているが、最終的にはすべてを把握することはできないと絶望している[4]。「それは、巨大な絵の大まかなスケッチにすぎない....」。 彼はいくつかの普遍性を見出すことができたが、その主なものは次の2つである。"男性と女性の間の性的な分離と、俗物と聖物の間の魔術的・宗教的な分離 "である。(彼は、儀式の種類を最初に認識したという功績を認めていない。彼はこの著作の中で、妊娠、出産、入会、婚約、結婚、葬儀など、個人が通常段階 的に遭遇するであろうグループや儀式に焦点を当てている。他にも、国境を越えて文化的に異なる地域、例えば異なる宗教が支配する地域に入る「領土通過」な どについても言及している。


Stages
Rites of passage have three phases: separation, liminality, and incorporation, as van Gennep described. "I propose to call the rites of separation from a previous world, preliminal rites, those executed during the transitional stage liminal (or threshold) rites, and the ceremonies of incorporation into the new world postliminal rites."[5]

In the first phase, people withdraw from their current status and prepare to move from one place or status to another. "The first phase (of separation) comprises symbolic behavior signifying the detachment of the individual or group ... from an earlier fixed point in the social structure."[6] There is often a detachment or "cutting away" from the former self in this phase, which is signified in symbolic actions and rituals. For example, the cutting of the hair for a person who has just joined the army. He or she is "cutting away" the former self: the civilian.

The transition (liminal) phase is the period between stages, during which one has left one place or state but has not yet entered or joined the next. "The attributes of liminality or of liminal personae ("threshold people") are necessarily ambiguous."[7]

In the third phase (reaggregation or incorporation) the passage is consummated [by] the ritual subject."[8] Having completed the rite and assumed their "new" identity, one re-enters society with one's new status. Re-incorporation is characterized by elaborate rituals and ceremonies, like debutant balls and college graduation, and by outward symbols of new ties: thus "in rites of incorporation there is widespread use of the 'sacred bond', the 'sacred cord', the knot, and of analogous forms such as the belt, the ring, the bracelet and the crown."[9]
Psychological effects
Laboratory experiments have shown that severe initiations produce cognitive dissonance.[10] It is theorized that such dissonance heightens group attraction among initiates after the experience, arising from internal justification of the effort used.[11] Rewards during initiations have important consequences in that initiates who feel more rewarded express stronger group identity.[12] As well as group attraction, initiations can also produce conformity among new members.[13] Psychology experiments have also shown that initiations increase feelings of affiliation.[14]
Cultural
Initiation rites are seen as fundamental to human growth and development as well as socialization in many African communities. These rites function by ritually marking the transition of someone to full group membership.[15] It also links individuals to the community and the community to the broader and more potent spiritual world. Initiation rites are "a natural and necessary part of a community, just as arms and legs are natural and necessary extension of the human body". These rites are linked to individual and community development. Dr. Manu Ampim identifies five stages; rite to birth, rite to adulthood, rite to marriage, rite to eldership and rite to ancestorship.[16] In Zulu culture entering womanhood is celebrated by the Umhlanga.
Types and examples
Rites of passage are diverse, and are found throughout many cultures around the world. Many western societal rituals may look like rites of passage but miss some of the important structural and functional components. However, in many Native and African-American communities, traditional rites of passage programs are conducted by community-based organizations such as Man Up Global. Typically the missing piece is the societal recognition and reincorporation phase. Adventure education programs, such as Outward Bound, have often been described as potential rites of passage. Pamela Cushing researched the rites of passage impact upon adolescent youth at the Canadian Outward Bound School and found the rite of passage impact was lessened by the missing reincorporation phase.[17] Bell (2003) presented more evidence of this lacking third stage and described the "Contemporary Adventure Model of a Rites of Passage" as a modern and weaker version of the rites of passage typically used by outdoor adventure programs.




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